About Our Center
Energy affects every major aspect of human life, from food production, healthcare, transportation, communication, and household use, among others. The growing economic and social costs of a changing environment are fueling the urgency for global transition from finite fossil fuel-based energy to cleaner, renewable, and sustainable resources that are readily available in nature. The United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agenda is expected to guide development policy action over the coming years, in the pursuit of a revitalized global partnership for sustainable development. Renewable energy is core to the implementation of SDG 7, which focuses on access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy, and SDG 13, which centers on urgent action to combat climate change. Advancement in sustainable energy development and deployment can also make critical contributions to the other 15 SDGs, including alleviating poverty; fighting hunger; increasing access to healthcare, education, and clean water; and protecting life on land and in water among others. Today’s energy systems and practices are clearly not sustainable. They are wasteful of fossil resources that produce many forms of pollution which adversely affects public health, damages the environment, and they often leave a negative long-term footprint for future generations. Sustainable energy research is therefore a combination of research in renewable energy, innovative storage system, smart grid, energy efficiency, energy law, economics and management and other related research interest. The Centre for Sustainable Energy (CSE) will play a key role in research and technological development activities in the field of sustainable energy in Nigeria. In particular, the CSE will strife to become a center of excellence in sustainable and renewable energy development where world standard research and development (R&D) work can be performed for measurable scientific outputs and technological innovations.
- Design, develop and deploy sustainable and renewable energy devices and systems.
- Provide energy services to KWASU and immediate communities.
- Disseminate research findings to promote renewable energy deployment.
- Work with industries/organizations/government agencies with common interests
through partnerships and joint initiatives.
- Conduct training leading to certification for students and others in the following areas
among others: (ii) Health, Safety and Environment (HSE)
It is my pleasure to welcome you to the Centre for Sustainable Energy (CSE), Kwara State University Malete. The Centre established in May, 2020 by the administration of Prof. Mohammed Mustapha Akanbi (SAN), the Vice-Chancellor of the University is poised to be a cutting-edge research Centre with focus on developing innovative ideas as well as human capacity for the provision of a more efficient, reliable, affordable and sustainable energy for our immediate communities, Nigeria and the world at large. CSE activities will be principally research-focused which shall constitute the fulcrum of all activities at the Centre. Others shall include training of students and services to the immediate community. In our immediate strategy, CSE will organize short training courses that will lead to certification in the following programme; (i) Solar energy/inverter design and installation (ii) Health, Safety and Environment (HSE). The targeted audience include; students, National Youth Service Corp (NYSC) members, unemployed graduates and other interested members of the public. Other strategies include; commencement of professional Master’s degree programme in Renewable Energy (MRe), Energy entrepreneurship leadership training programme, fabrication and sales of KWASU Inverter System (KIS), solar power installation for interested members of the public, increase the university renewable energy portfolio to about 5MW in 5 years and Rural Communities Power Supply Initiative (RC-PSI) among others. Our team of researchers comprise of academics with vast experience in renewable energy, Technologists with many years of practice in the field and dedicated administrative support staff members.
Prof. Kajogbola Rasaq AJAO
SOLAR ENERGY DIVISION
The sun is the source of energy that drives the cycle of life on earth. It is also the energy source that gives us warmth and evaporates water and melts snow. The sun is about 150,000,000 km away from the Earth. Due to its immense, but finite size, it has an angular diameter of 0.5 degree (32 minutes), as viewed from Earth. Sun burns continuously via thermo-nuclear reactions (fusion). Inside the sun, radioactive processes release energy and convection transfers solar energy to its exterior surface. Despite the extremely high temperatures needed at the core of the sun, to sustain its thermo-nuclear reactions, the sun has a black body temperature of 5770 0K. Consequently, the Earth receives a relatively constant flux density of energy, known as the solar constant of mean value 1366 W/m2. The sun is the origin of almost all renewable energy forms excluding geo-thermal. Solar Water Heating Solar Water Heating (SWH) systems use heat from the sun to warm domestic hot water through solar panels, called collectors, fitted to a roof. The collected heat from the sun is used to heat up water which is stored in a cylinder or tank. A boiler or immersion heater can be used as back up to heat the water further to reach the desired temperature. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) & Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Technology PV technology captures the sun’s energy using photovoltaic solar cells. Photons of light excite electrons into a higher state of energy, allowing them to act as charge carriers for an electric current. Thus, PV is a means of generating electrical power by converting sunlight into direct current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit a photovoltaic effect. For a continuous supply of electric power, especially for on-grid connections, photovoltaic panels require not only inverters but also storage batteries. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is a technology that produces electricity by concentrating solar energy on a single focal point. This concentrated energy is then used to heat up a fluid, form steam and drive turbines to produce electricity. CSP installations have the distinct advantage of being able to store energy in the form of heat, if they are built with this capacity. This means that even during peak electricity demand at night they can be used to produce electricity. KWASU Solar Farm The Federal Government of Nigeria through the Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFund) funded the installation of 300 kW solar power farm in Kwasu to provide alternative power supply on campus. 800 units of solar panels having a power rating of 305W were connected in series with 4 string inverters which in turn are connected to a combiner box that is monitored via an intelligent power distribution system. Three power conversion system linked to a 1MW battery bank is also monitored by the intelligent power distribution system. This installation also includes 300 streetlights that provides campus wide illumination at night. Solar equipment donated by Government of Republic of Lithuania The government of the Republic of Lithuania through the Development Cooperation of the Project Climate Change Special Program in 2020 donated 100 Kw solar power equipment to the Kwara State University and another additional donation of 200 kW system in due course. .
WIND ENERGY/POWER STORAGE DIVISION
Nigeria is still a power-challenged country as the daily generated energy is still far below the national demand. The conventional means of generating energy is largely from thermal and large hydro sources. While the fuel for the thermal plants is expensive and insufficient in supply, the large hydropower plants are expensive to set up. As a result, the nation must consider alternative means of generating cheap and reliable energy. In addition, there should be technical innovations in the existing grid that will assist in maximizing the potentials of the limited energy, ensure the robustness of the existing grid, and reduces losses. A major and thriving alternative is renewable energy sources. This includes wind energy, solar energy, mini and micro-hydro, tidal energy, biomass energy, and geothermal energy. The wind energy/smart grid division of the CSE will be focusing on groundbreaking research and technological innovation towards the development of wind electricity and modernizing the electrical grid system using analog and digital techniques as well as ICT. Activities towards wind energy generation will involve the following:
Wind assessment and characterization. This will include the estimation of the wind energy potential of the KWASU campus and other selected locations in Nigeria.
Wind turbine development considering aerodynamics, structural loads, blade development, noise, power quality, and wind desalination.
Wind farm design: modeling, simulation, resource characterization, and analysis.
Wind power plant controls and reliability
Connection of wind power to the grid system
Development of a wind farm
FUEL CELL/ENERGY EFFICIENCY DIVISION
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel (often hydrogen) and an oxidizing agent (often oxygen) into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. Fuel cells are different from most batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen (usually from air) to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy usually comes from metals and their ions or oxides that are commonly already present in the battery, except in flow batteries. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied. Novel and improved fuel cell technologies is in the form of low cost and high durability proton exchange membrane fuel cells and ammonia-based fuel cells, enabling hydrogen export in the form of ammonia and its usage at the electricity generation point. Energy efficiency is the first fuel of a sustainable global energy system. It can mitigate climate change, improve energy security and grow economies while delivering environmental and social benefits. While increased energy use clearly has many benefits, we are also becoming increasingly aware of the negative impacts of energy use. We experience these negative impacts globally and locally in the form of climate change (and the associated effects) and degradation of local environments in terms of poor air quality, degradation of soils (leading to desertification), resource depletion and noise pollution. However, more efficient use of energy at all stages of the supply and demand chain could reduce the negative impacts of energy consumption, while still allowing the same economic development. In addition, the inefficient use of energy generally implies higher than necessary operating costs to the consumers. At the company or enterprise level, higher energy efficiency will thus reduce operating costs and enhance profitability. Energy efficiency brings a variety of benefits: reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing household’s energy demand from the grid, and lowering our costs on a household and economy-wide level. While renewable energy technologies also help accomplish these objectives, improving energy efficiency is the cheapest and often the most immediate way to reduce the use of fossil fuels. There are enormous opportunities for efficiency improvements in every sector of the economy, whether it is buildings, transportation, industry, or energy generation.
Generation of Biofuels from Biomass: In Nigeria, agricultural residues and by-products of livestock production are important sources of biomass which are often considered as environmental wastes. Waste to energy technologies, particularly thermochemical and biochemical conversion processes are the main source of converting biomass to a usable form of energy while reducing environmental impact. To this end, it is necessary to identify the biomass-based energy potential from the available biomass wastes and convert this to useful energy through research. Biomass is classified according to their moisture contents and appropriate technology to convert it to energy source are to be selected depending on the biomass characteristics and properties such as moisture and heating value. In general, for biomass sources with more than 30% moisture, bioconversion processes such as anaerobic digestion are more indicated. Otherwise, thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis are better alternative. In total, the combined use of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion would produce biofuels (bio oil, gas, biochar and biogas from bio digester), the biochar so obtained from pyrolysis could further be recycled to produce steam for power generation.
RURAL ELECTRIFICATION/SMART GRID DIVISION
Smart grid is the digital technology that allows for two-way communication between the utility and its customers, and the sensing along the transmission lines is what makes the grid smart. Smart grid will consist of controls, computers, automation, and new technologies and equipment working together, but in this case, these technologies will work with the electrical grid to respond digitally to quickly changing electric demand. The Smart grid represents an unprecedented opportunity to move the energy industry into a new era of reliability, availability, sustainability and efficiency that will contribute to socio-economic and environmental health. During the transition period, it will be critical to carry out testing, technology improvements, consumer education, development of standards and regulations, and information sharing between projects to ensure that the benefits envisioned from the smart grid become a reality.
Small Hydropower Development: The increase in prices of fossil energy sources and their impact on the environment due to green gas emissions has made hydropower more and more an important and attractive energy source. Hydropower systems encompass the structures and equipment that convert the force of falling water to electricity. Opposite to the disadvantages given by the implementation of big hydropower plants, the proper design of small hydropower plants can be an environmentally friendly solution and represents a useful alternative renewable energy source, especially for rural areas without developed electricity grids. Thus, small hydropower is specially featured for implementation in countries in transition and emerging countries as the outcome can be deployed to areas that are not connected to the grid. Hydro plant facilities can be categorized into three sizes: large (>30 MW), small (100 kW-30 MW) or micro (<100 kW). There are three main types of hydro plants:
(i) Impoundment facilities are the most common technology which uses a dam to create a large reservoir of water. Electricity is made when water passes through turbines in the dam.
(ii) Pumped storage facilities are similar but have a second reservoir below the dam. Water can be pumped from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir, storing energy for use at a later time.
(iii) Run-of-river facilities rely more on natural water flow rates, diverting just a portion of river water through turbines, sometimes without the use of a dam or reservoirs. Since run-of-river hydro is subject to natural water variability, it is more intermittent than dammed hydropower.
ENERGY LAW, POLICY AND MANAGEMENT DIVISION
Nigeria Power Sector Reform Roadmap
Independent Power Projects Regulation
Regulation for Sustainable Energy
TECHNICAL TRAINING, FABRICATION, TESTING AND DEPLOYMENT DIVISION
Fabrication and testing
Equipment and facilities maintenance
Rural Communities Power Supply Initiative (RC-PSI)
- Properly design and size solar photovoltaic power systems.
- Identify and describe basic functions of different components of PV systems.
- Describe the differences among various PV cell technologies.
- Define factors that impact the amount of peak sun hours reaching the array.
- Identify tilte angle and orientation that provides maximum energy production.
- Identify data required to size and design solar PV systems.
- Determine the correct wiring configuration of PV modules for a given application.
- Identify potential job site hazards and opportunities for additional safety training.
- Install solar panels on the rooftop using a roof model.
- Know different types of battery technology available in the market with their advantages and disadvantages.
- Understand how to choose the right battery type for specific site and customers and how to maintain battery banks for optimal life span.
- Know some of the policies governing renewable energy in Nigeria The training will be divided into two:
- (A) Basic Course in solar power inverter design and installation .
- (B) Advanced course solar power in inverter design and installation .
(A) HSE LEVEL 1 (BASIC) The HSE training is divided into three levels: basic, proficiency, and competence. Level 1 (Basic) is designed to teach participants about the common hazards that exist in workplaces, such as those associated with manual handling, slips, trips, falls and workplace stress. It explains the safety measures and precautions that employers should implement to uphold health and safety. This training offers the most comprehensive approach to developing an effective positive safety culture at the workplace. A positive safety culture is an essential approach to attaining the desired goal of zero incidents in the workplace as well as provides an understanding of what is needed to reach this goal. The course explains both employer and employee responsibilities under health and safety law. As well as detailing employer responsibilities, it also outlines employee responsibilities to promote health and safety and protect their wellbeing. Level 2 (Proficiency) will provide the participant with the knowledge needed to keep safe at work. It explains the most common health and safety risks, how to prevent them, and how to make sure that employees are working safely. It also explains the key pieces of health and safety legislation and guidance so that you can ensure you are remaining compliant. Level 3 (Competence) Health and Safety in the workplace course is designed to help employers, managers and supervisors understand the importance of thorough risk assessments and ensuring that relevant and appropriate control measures are in place to protect the health and safety of everyone in the workplace. This course provides learners with an in-depth guide to all aspects of health and safety, explaining the legislation that businesses must comply with, providing examples of suitable control measures, and demonstrating how workers can be encouraged to follow safe working practices. Learning outcomes: • Understand what is required of employers and employees under current health and safety legislation. • Understand the importance and significance of workplace risk assessments. • Know why it is essential to report and investigate accidents. • Understand the roles that managers, supervisors and personal protective equipment play in health and safety. • Know how to deal with employee welfare and wellbeing, motivation, staff training, first aid and emergency procedures. • Understand the risks associated with the workplace and work equipment; fire and explosion; electricity; working at height; vehicles; violence, drugs and alcohol; hazardous substances; noise and vibration; and manual handling.